The minimum bolt length required for joining two DriscoPlex® Flange Adapters may be determined using the following: L B =2(T b +T f ) +T g +d B (2-1. ) are divided by the diameter of the fittings then a constant ratio (Le/D) is obtained. 2 - equivalent pipe length = pipe length + 20%. The limiting factor on cooling units is oil sump capacity in the compressor. The Performance Pipe. What is the friction head for the water service line (multiply the answers for questions 4 and 5). 6 gpm F' ' 8 24 fu, 38 gpm ' MAIN M BFP B' WATER HEATER 54'. A common engineering problem to be able to determine the losses (analysis), or velocity (prediction) or the conduit size (design) of a piping system. (They're in ACCA's Manual D and the ASHRAE Handbooks. Pipe railing fittings can be used to build simple residential railings or complex multi-rail guardrails for commercial infrastructure. Using Equivalent Lengths of Valves and Fittings Nov 08 2010 01:20 PM | pleckner in Fluid Flow One of the most basic calculations performed by any process engineer, whether in design or in the plant, is line sizing and pipeline pressure loss. Learn more about the units used on this page. Table 6-1 is a brand new one that comes from Field Controls. You say, > But the flow rate of suction line increases gradually for this we use the expander. (Effective January 1, 2014). Calculations for pipe. Offering includes elbows, tees, adapter nipples, caps, eccentric and concentric reducers. 00 121979 410823 1. Rectangular Single Wall Duct & Fittings for Commercial or Industrial HVAC Ductwork Systems Sheet Metal Connectors, Inc. Calculate the length of the pipe by dividing its 9. Refrigeration Installation 101. 3n, where L is additional length (feet) of tubing and n is the number of additional fittings and/or bends. On previous ductwork pages we discussed the single fitting and it's contribution to the system's overall TEL (total equivalent length). Built using application-specific high-density polyethylene, dual wall N-12 corrugated pipe also provides superior corrosion and abrasion resistance. 4 / 100 x 7. The CERM only gives equivalent length values for steel and cast iron. The exterior of all pipe and fittings, unless otherwise specified, shall receive a standard bituminous outer coating. GRP/GRV/GRE Fittings required for various applications are provided by Extra Co using same material as pipe, formed to suit pipe size and end design, in required elbows, tees, unequal tees, concentric reducers, flanges, blind flanges, puddle flanges, couplings, saddles, wyes, crosses, end caps, etc. One formulation expresses losses as (7). Tube in the soft temper can be joined by the same techniques and is also commonly joined by the use of flare-type and compression fittings. Refrigerant Piping › Fittings. L is the length of pipe including equivalent length for loss through fittings, ft D is the inside diameter of circular pipe, ft V is the velocity of flow, ft/sec g is the acceleration of gravity, 32. ) for wall thickness. Pressure drop in a pipe due to fittings such as elbows, tees, valves, expanders and reducers based on 3K and 2K method. 4 Equivalent length is measured after the point of connection to the condensate assembly and includes the termination fitting (if used). standard for tapered threads used to join pipes and fittings. JM Eagle offers the most comprehensive line of plastic pipe. A-29 Length in Feet of Pipe to be Added to Actual Length of Run — Owing to Fittings — to Obtain Equivalent Length A. Equivalent length of fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves in hot water heating systems - equivalent length in feet and meter. We offer you the fastest steel pipe and tube shipping in the business. 6 shows an equivalent length of 14. Downstream Pressure. For standard degrees of pipe elbows such as 45° and 90°, elbow center to end dimensions are available in standard pipe charts. If the fittings don’t match, one solution is to replace the valve with one that has a flare fitting on one side and a 1/2-in. Butt weld fittings are available in seamless and welded execution (seamless for bore sizes below 24 inches, welded for sizes above 24 inches). Pipe Sizes and Dimensions Chart; Find the outside diameter of your pipe to the nearest millimetre, use a tape meaasure or vernier gauge. Fittings Pipe Nipples & Pipe Couplings Forged Steel Fittings & Unions Anvilets Catawissa J. In October 2001, in response to questions and concerns raised by the IIAR Membership, an IIAR Membership Alert was prepared advising the Members of the impact of the new ANSI/ASHRAE Addendum 15 c - 2000 on those involved in the design, installation and maintenance of mechanical refrigeration systems. Hence, the pressure losses in fittings are constant for a given flow (Q), regardless of the type of pipe used to construct the system. Whenever, a pipe fitting is AN fittings, it means that the fittings are measured on the outside diameter of the fittings, that is, in 1/16 inch increments. Section 2, supplying outlets A, B, and C, or 94 cubic feet per hour requires 3/4 inch pipe. the development of a pipe pressure drop calculation for standard mitigation piping and fittings. D shows (L/D) e. 2 ft Total for valve and fittings = 35. Standard Test Method for Resistance to Short-Time Hydraulic Pressure of Plastic Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings1 This standard is issued under the ﬁxed designation D 1599; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. Manufacturing process of ASTM A234 WPB steel pipe fittings: The process of A234 WPB pipe fittings manufacturing is called “wrought” which means it could be casted or forged. If the overall pressure drop is equivalent to a pipe length of 16 diameters, and the pressure drop due to the actual flow path length (which is affected by the roughness) is equivalent to only 2. Metline Industries (Steel Pipes & Tube Division) is an ISO 9001:2008 Certified manufacturer and supplier of Galvanized Steel Pipes/Tubes. coefficients of the fittings and their ranges are presented in this report as a function of upstream flow velocity and the Reynolds number. Dimensions Minimum wall thickness and mass per 6-metre length for each size and class. of P/100 equivalent feet maximum. Design of PE Piping Systems 159 The Hydrostatic Design Stress, HDS, is the safe long-term circumferential stress that PE pipe can withstand. 3', still fairly negligible and far lower than I expected. This application includes built-in pipe fitting equivalent length and nominal pipe sizing. Equivalent Lengths and Minor Losses DIP (ft) Components Eq Length Feet 1, Gate Valve 3. The type of fitting will have a corresponding “K-factor” or “C-Coefficient”, which can be found in the ASHRAE of Fundamentals book and some typical fitting losses are also shown in the Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual. An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Company, Steber Steel is India’s most preferred manufacturers, exporter and suppliers of ASTM A234 Gr WPB Fittings, carbon steel buttweld fittings, carbon steel forged fittings, carbon steel swage nipples, and carbon steel branch outlet fittings. To convert this value to feet of head, multiply 60. " Average Friction Loss for PVC and CPVC Fittings in Equivalent Feet of Straight Run Pipe. The Duct Size Calculator is a quick reference tool for approximating duct size and equivalent sizes of sheet-metal duct and flexible duct. Ask The HvacMan. Grooved ends eliminate pipe end preparation for the fittings. Details of standard pipe, joints, specials and fittings. The biggest update to the ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database app in years is now available. • Resistant to a wide range of chemicals / fluids. of P/100 equivalent feet maximum. In simple terms, the theory of the Equivalent Length of Fittings provides that for each fitting there will be an equivalent length of "dummy" pipe that generates a friction head loss equal to the localized head loss generated by this fitting, so that, when using a calculation equation for friction losses (which are generally dependent equations of the pipe length analyzed), a length. • Length Supplied in standard 6m lengths. In 2003 (ASHRAE, 2003), the equivalent pipe resistance was replaced with the borehole thermal resistances calculated using the formulation proposed by Remund (1999). APPENDIX A 2011 OREGON RESIDENTIAL SPECIALTY CODE A-3 TABLE A. 6 gpm F' ' 8 24 fu, 38 gpm ' MAIN M BFP B' WATER HEATER 54'. Calculations are for 60°F dry air at sea level, from 5 to 3000 cfm (approximately standard air which is 0. For example, each elbow used is equivalent to 30 feet of straight pipe or duct. This paper discusses the development of a pipe pressure drop calculation for standard mitigation piping and fittings. Bengtson, PhD, P. For example an 8" 90 deg. Fitting 900 Elbow 450 Elbow Gate valve Tee Flow Run Tee Flow Branch Male/Female Adapter 1/2 1. 3, a service classification Expansible fluid • Any vapour or gaseous substance, any liquid under such pressure and temperature such that when pressure is reduced to atmospheric, will change to a gas Hydro test • Test pressure = 1. The maximum equivalent vent length is 60 feet (18. 5’ equivalent length should be sufficient when considering the straight run of pipe plus the equivalent length of any fittings. Pipe length differs from the standard 4000 mm can be made. Ductile-Iron Pipe and Fittings (AWWA Manual M41) – This manual provides both technical and general information to aid in the design, specification, procurement, installation, and understanding of ductile iron pipe and fittings. is the equivalent length and is the diameter of the pipe. An elbow is a pipe fitting which is used as a connection point between two lengths of pipes to produce a change in the direction of flow in the pipe, usually at an angle of 90°, 45° or 180°. Pressure Loss from Fittings – Expansion and Reduction in Pipe Size Summary This article provides methods to calculate the K-value (Resistance Coefficient) for determining the pressure loss cause by changes in the area of a fluid flow path. ASHRAE fulfills its mission of advancing heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration to serve humanity and promote a sustainable world through research, standards writing, publishing, and continuing education. When figuring the feet of pipe count lateral type branches as 45o elbows. Some reference books use piping equivalent lengths for fittings and valves and others, such as the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, use k-factors. Only Paypal payments are accepted. With interior fittings, the schedule of pipe is important, as this affects the inner diameter of the pipe. So the equivalent length of Dia 100mm elbow is Le = 20*. The equivalent length method (The L e /D method) allows the user to describe the pressure loss through an elbow or a fitting as a length of straight pipe. BECAUSE obtaining complete test data on the pressure drop of every available size and type of valve and pipe fitting is impossible, a practical. Flexhose has a lot of resistance de-pending on the corrugation. Start collar = 2. Recommended velocities are: Pipe Sizes of 2" and Under: 2 fps minimum to 4 fps maximum Pipe Sizes of over 2":. Pipe and fittings shall conform to the requirements of the following specifications: ASTM B 745/B 745M Corrugated Aluminum Pipe for Sewers and Drains. Using your automotive hose size, choose from the chart below to find the AN equivalent for hose, hose ends and adapter fittings. Pressure Loss from Fittings – Expansion and Reduction in Pipe Size Summary This article provides methods to calculate the K-value (Resistance Coefficient) for determining the pressure loss cause by changes in the area of a fluid flow path. Pressure drop calculations by equivalent length method are carried out using equation given below. ASHRAE Transactions. 1 illustrates flow along a length of straight uniform pipe of diameter D. As the leading manufacturer of cast iron soil pipe and fittings, Charlotte Pipe and Foundry can be your. Creating New Resistance Tables. Calculations for pipe. Steel Tubular Products ASTM/ASME A53/SA53 seamless and welded steel pipe is a general, all-purpose pipe used in generator plants, refineries, compressor stations, natural gas transmission. Equivalent lengths of fittings like elbows - regular 90 o, long radius 90 o, regular 45 o. This application uses slider controls that allow you to quickly increment or decrement the input values and immediately observe the calculated results. An alternative to the K value method, is the use of equivalent straight pipe lengths (L/D) values for fittings and valves. Mechanical Joints between stainless steel pipe and fittings shall be of the compression, grooved coupling, hydraulic pressed fittings, or flanged. I'm curious how you define the developed length though. Seven calculation methods were selected for comparison of calculation of pressure drop in 90° and 180° elbows. The standard length of HDPE pipe is 50 feet, in sizes above 2” in diameter with longer lengths available on request. It is also possible to expand the end of one tube so that it can be joined to another by soldering or brazing without a capillary fitting—a procedure. Here's an example calculation using the compressed air pipe sizing table (table 1) and the equivalent pipe length table (table 2). For example a 34'-0" length of 3" schedule 40 pipe having 2 90 degree elbows, a gate valve and 3 tee fittings, where flow is turned 90 degrees, would have a total equivalent length of:. So instead of varying the height of our slope by calculating the pressure loss of each fitting, we make the length longer by adding the equivalent length. 00 in pdf form, then you've come to the right. The formulas for calculating the pressure drop were obtained from the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals (ref 2). Dynamic Forge & Fittings (I) Pvt. Fittings Pipe Nipples & Pipe Couplings Forged Steel Fittings & Unions Anvilets Catawissa J. Rectangular duct is rounded up to the nearest 1/4 inch. Determine equivalent length of pipe in the main lines, risers, branches, and returns. 46 cubic feet at 100 psi. Length (TEL) Did the contractor calculate the TEL by adding the longest Sup-ply Total Effective Length and the longest Return Total Effec-tive Length? (Total Effective Length = the length of the duct from outlet back to unit + the effective length for all fittings, i. The next value we must find is the total equivalent length of pipe. 3—5" standard elbows at 11 = 33. 4 m equivalent length for the same elbow. 5 feet of pipe. for different types. FITTINGS: Every pipe fitting creates a certain amount of increased frictional air loss that is equal to a specified length of pipe. Each fitting has an equivalent length that equates its pressure drop to an equivalent amount of straight duct. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Codes and Standards, besides being regulations, might also be considered as Design Aids since they provide guidance from experts. Schedule 40 head loss per 100' values are usually used for other wall thicknesses and standard iron pipe size O. PIPE-FLO Professional Method of Solution 7 a2 θd 1 L θ = Angle of approach L = Approach length 1 = Smaller diameter subscript 2 = Larger diameter subscript Reducer Fitting Reducers A change in fitting diameter causes a pressure loss due to the change in velocity of the fluid as it passes through the fitting. Well, in a first place, the correct definition of L/D is an equivalent length of a fitting in pipe diameters, not just an equivalent length. Straight pipe joints and fittings to be restrained jointare - type. Hence, the fittings are replaced by the equivalent additional length of pipe that has same friction loss as the fitting. Fitting Pressure Loss Calculator Find the equivalent feet of pipe to add to the pressure loss equation to calculate pressure losses in plastic IPS or copper type fittings. CALCULATING PIPE LENGTHS Pipe lengths are calculated using the elevation differences of the pipe and the roadway grade above the pipe. I'm browsing my online access of ASHRAE handbook but can't find the tables for equivalent lenght. Basic Air Conditioning Piping Recommendations – Suction Lines – Part 2 Posted on June 19, 2013 by yorkcentraltechtalk Okay — hopefully I’ve made my point that the two factors — suction line pressure loss and suction line velocity –are the most important parts of sizing suction lines for any air conditioning system — either. Up Rings are found in Performance Pipe product literature and are located on Performance Pipe’s web site (www. On previous ductwork pages we discussed the single fitting and it's contribution to the system's overall TEL (total equivalent length). how to calculate water volume in pex tubing and copper pipe Posted by bloger 06/14/2016 2 Comment(s) In order to attain a properly working system of any kind, certain calculations must be done to uphold the volume of water inside of the system. JM Eagle offers the most comprehensive line of plastic pipe. water main shall be awwa c151 ductile iron pipe class 350 or c909 dr 18 cl 150, with slip-on water main shall be awwa c151 ductile iron pipe class 350 or c909 dr 18 cl 150, with slip-on joints with rubber gaskets and megalug restrains or equivalent. The space s containing the machinery is separated from other occupancies by tight construction with tight-fitting doors. You cannot schedule the Ashrae fittings tables in a Revit schedule that I am aware of. Nominal Pipe Size: Outside Diameter: Inside. SURFACE AREA AND SQUARE FEET PER LINEAR FOOT OF PIPE Size Diameter Square Feet per Linear Foot of Pipe Inches External Inches Internal Inches External Internal 1/4 0. Add the equivalent lengths, starting at the beginning and proceeding along the mains, risers, branches, and returns (when applicable). FWB supplies an extensive range of industrial steel pipe and steel pipe fittings. for major accessories such as air separator, heat exchanger, coils, control valves • Add pressure drop in. 1116-TRP) February 2005 Minneapolis, Minnesota. 1 MSI Malleable Iron Product Specifications / Page 3. The results of the study show that the K-value of long elbows is smallest for larger pipe fittings and increases as the pipe fitting size decreases. for insulating chilled water piping systems in mechanical systems using a vapor sealed mineral fiber pipe insulation. The pressure rating. Determine equivalent length of pipe in the main lines, risers, branches, and returns. PIPE FITTING FRICTION CALCULATION The friction loss for fittings depends on a K factor which can be found in many sources such as the Cameron Hydraulic data book or the Hydraulic Institute Engineering data book, the charts which I reproduce here in Figures 1 and 2. Fittings Friction Head Loss. These calculations can be conveniently carried out with an Excel spreadsheet. Friction loss due to pvc pipe fittings. Each fitting has an equivalent length that equates its pressure drop to an equivalent amount of straight duct. It uses slider controls that allow you to quickly increment or decrement the input values and immediately observe the calculated results. Weighted average lead content <=0. The strength of the equivalent length method is that it is very simple to calculate. Then find this size down the left hand column, read across the four coloured columns on the right to find the group and description of your size pipe. It also includes built-in pipe fitting equivalent length and nominal pipe sizing tables for a wide variety of pipe material types and diameters. For more information, see the Swagelok Leak Detectors, Lubricants, and Sealants catalog, MS-01-91. 2 Air and Vent Piping Equivalent Length DO NOT mix pipe, fittings, cements, or joining. Creating New Resistance Tables. Once the equivalent lengths of fittings has been determined, this same table will be reviewed for final size selections. Where would I find a quick list of equivalent lengths for generic fittings for materials other than steel and cast iron? TIA. 02466 Equivalent sizes shown in API Speciﬁcation 5L Printed April 2008 www. The calculation program is equipped with a customized command bar giving access to the various procedures, boxes of calculation and macro commands. • For basic piping systems • Straight lengths x 50% = length of pipe allowed for fittings • For complex piping systems • Use 75% to 100% b) Fitting Equivalent Method • Detailed procedure requiring complete inventory of fittings • See ASHRAE Equivalent Lengths. 4 ‘ by the same number used in the length of pipe calculation above for 70 GPM and 2’ PVC diameter pipe, 7. We spend countless hours researching various file formats and software that can open, convert, create or otherwise work with those files. An estimate of the equivalent lengths of the fittings can be provided using the adjacent program or accepted on an approximate basis by adding 60% onto the length of the straight pipeline, e. A182 F9 Forged Flanges are Available in Size Range of 1″ to 48″, with nut, bolts and gaskets. 5 ft of equivalent pipe length. to establish a maximum equivalent length of a vent pipe per- and the second is a six-way cross-bore fitting. Some manufacturers show equivalent length which means the actual distance is less, but that a fitting is added in as an equivalent length of pipe. The type of fitting will have a corresponding “K-factor” or “C-Coefficient”, which can be found in the ASHRAE of Fundamentals book and some typical fitting losses are also shown in the Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual. 6 m tee 1 × 1. 4 Equivalent length is measured after the point of connection to the condensate assembly and includes the termination fitting (if used). Replace upper section of housing to closed position and secure. See below table for elbow and tee losses. 118(1):1061-1076. Pipe and Fittings Carbon Steel Pipe and Fittings 6 t x 0. revisededition FluidsThrough Valves, Fittings. 1- equivalent length ---> Carrier handbook. For standard degrees of pipe elbows such as 45° and 90°, elbow center to end dimensions are available in standard pipe charts. An estimate of the equivalent lengths of the fittings can be provided using the adjacent program or accepted on an approximate basis by adding 60% onto the length of the straight pipeline, e. On the prediction of pressure losses in complex flow to simulate fluid flow in two commonly used pipe fittings: An elbow and a T-joint using the STAR-CD code. With drag and drop you can make your own graphic database design. 3  and other B31 piping codes present empirical formulas for stress intensification and flexibility factors for different pipe fittings. Malleable, Cast Iron, Forged Steel, and Nipple standards & specifications. Add these two values together to determine the total equivalent length. Testing at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at Texas A&M University, along with data analysis by Tennessee Technical University, has quantified the adverse effects of compression on airflow. When a tentative pipe size has been selected, the equivalent pipe lengths for the estimated valves and fittings can be estimated by using Figure 5-2. FITTINGS: Every pipe fitting creates a certain amount of increased frictional air loss that is equal to a specified length of pipe. “the equivalent length of pipe” plus the actual length of pipe multiplied by the “friction loss” divided by 100. Pipe Size Inches Sch. 5 PSD-18 18 1. They are the most used ones and most known too. Systems utilizing the Variable Refrigerant Volume technology are common in these regions and are applied successfully to meet these standards. Next, determine the equivalent vent length using chart on Page 5. 2- K-factor ---> ASHRAE fundamental * The main friction equations are Colbrook White & Hazen Williams. 2 feet —call it. The type of fitting will have a corresponding “K-factor” or “C-Coefficient”, which can be found in the ASHRAE of Fundamentals book and some typical fitting losses are also shown in the Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual. 1 Equivalent Length Method. Installation and accessories shall comply with the manufacturers catalog data. Ie if you have Sch 40 1" pipe, you buy Sch 40 1" fittings. of clean commercial steel pipe. In literature, you usually find ratios of equivalent length to diameter of the. The minimum equivalent length of the common sections is 3 feet. (Wall thickness = mm / Mass = kg ) Outside Dia. txt) or read online for free. Field Handbook. You can also manually input exact values. resistance to flow along a long straight pipe with smooth walls. Details of standard pipe, joints, specials and fittings. JM Eagle offers the most comprehensive line of plastic pipe. Introduction. GRP/GRV/GRE Fittings required for various applications are provided by Extra Co using same material as pipe, formed to suit pipe size and end design, in required elbows, tees, unequal tees, concentric reducers, flanges, blind flanges, puddle flanges, couplings, saddles, wyes, crosses, end caps, etc. txt) or read online for free. Fundamentals of safety relief of systems. The pipe length does not exceed the length permitted by Tables P2904. Fitting equivalent length and total fitting friction will be displayed in the calculated results for each pipe section. Equivalent length is exactly what it sounds like. Ask The HvacMan. The calculation is valid for smooth pipes. And the effective length is the sum of the actual length and the equivalent length. 𝑟2 (1) where: L = length (equivalent) of discharge. But many times, custom elbow angles are required at site which should be cut from standard 45° or 90° elbows. Check valve - 1 no. com MSI Malleable Iron Pipe Fittings Meet the following Specifications: ASME B16. Gas Pipe Fittings Equivalent Length Manufacturers, Factory, Suppliers From China, With advantage of industry management, the business has generally been committed to supporting prospects to become the current market leader in their respective industries. HDPE pipe is up to 30 times lighter than concrete pipe, making it far easier to transport and handle. S901-2 MATERIALS S901-2. The results of the study show that the K-value of long elbows is smallest for larger pipe fittings and increases as the pipe fitting size decreases. An estimate of the equivalent lengths of the fittings can be provided using the adjacent program or accepted on an approximate basis by adding 60% onto the length of the straight pipeline, e. 45° elbow 7 ft. L e = equivalent length (length of pipe with same resistance as the fitting/valve) f T = friction factor. Copper & Copper Alloy Tube and Pipe Standards. msi-products. Standard elbows will have 1. An elbow, a tee, or any other fitting that causes a change in direction will cause pressure loss. In making a theoretical analysis of the system pressure differentials for a boiler-breeching-stack system, several basic assumptions must be made. Beckfeld, M. ASTM's plastic pipe standards are instrumental in specifying, testing, and evaluating the physical, mechanical, design, and installation requirements for plastic, polymeric, or elastomeric pipes, tubing, and fittings, including the seals, threads, and couplings that join them together. One end of this has a threaded compression fitting that is slightly too small to take a "normal" waste pipe - the maximum external diameter pipe it will take is about 38mm. Loss is given by - 2 h K v g ( /2 ) L = Where K is computed as - = e ( / )* K L D f t. MSS-SP-6- 2001 “Standard Finishes for Contact Faces of Pipe Flanges and Connecting-End Flanges of Valves and Fittings” MSS-SP-58- 1993 “Pipe Hangers and Supports-Materials, Design and Manufacture” MSS-SP-69- 2002 “Pipe Hangers and Supports-Selection and Application” 3. This format makes it easy to determine the pressure drop for any reasonable length of hose. Table 3 - Friction Losses Through Pipe Fittings in Terms of Equivalent Lengths of Standard Pipe Size of Pipe (Small Dia. Refer to TABLE - 5 for estimations of "equivalent lengths' of valves and fittings. 5 shows the equivalent pipe lengths for the ﬁttings in the example in ﬁgure 5. Downstream Pressure. 5 centerline radius. 3(5) allowance in equivalent lengths of pipe for friction loss in valves and threaded fittings (feet) table e103. Handrail A guide to the Aalco range of stainless steel handrail/ balustrade systems comprising tube and slotted tube plus associated fittings. Their inside diameters must be large enough to fit over the pipe's outside diameter. 90 deg boot w/reg = 7. LENGTH AND EFFECTIVE LENGTH. Pipe Nominal. Those where the Pressure Drop is defined as an equivalent length of Straight Pipe. On global basis, American National Standards are the most widely used and compliance with those requirements are accepted world over. Total measured line lengths are limited to: • The limiting factor on heat pumps is the storage capacity of the accumulator. Example: Determine L (friction loss in pipe fittings in terms of equivalent length in feet of straight pipe). PIPING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION (PROJECT STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS) MANUFACTURERS STANDARD SOCIETY (MSS) MSS-SP-25 Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings, Flanges and Unions MSS-SP-44 Steel Pipeline Flanges MSS-SP-75 Specification for High Test Wrought Butt Welding Fittings MSS-SP-80 Bronze Gate, Globe, Angle and Check Valves. L is the length of pipe including equivalent length for loss through fittings, ft D is the inside diameter of circular pipe, ft V is the velocity of flow, ft/sec g is the acceleration of gravity, 32. Total equivalent length (TEL) is used in HVAC duct length measurements to account for bends, fittings (wyes and mixing boxes) and friction loss to find the installed sizes of ductwork. It’s made from lengths of steel pipe and fittings, a light kit and a light bulb– all readily available at your local Home Depot store. Equivalent length is the length of pipe with diameter and friction factor having the same energy loss as a fitting. •More available in the ASHRAE Handbook or SMACNA •Obtain other duct fittings pressure losses from manufacturers such as duct heaters, dampers, filters, grilles, coils, etc •Calculated by the following formula (derived from Bernoulli's) ∆P TOTAL = K T X P V 2 = K T X ½ X ρV ∆P TOTAL = the total pressure loss across the duct fitting K. Pipe Sizing Data Maximum deliver capacity of pipes of different diameters and lengths in cubic feet of gas per hour for an initial pressure of 2. Systems utilizing the Variable Refrigerant Volume technology are common in these regions and are applied successfully to meet these standards. Limits on Crest and Root of American National Standard External and Internal Taper Pipe Threads, NPT ANSI/ASME B1. 45° elbow 7 ft. Pipe extenders fit inside schedule 40 PVC pipe and extend it another couple inches, which can be helpful in many different situations. com You are not registered with B2BFreezone. The Scientific World Journal is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research, reviews, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. However, we need to understand that (in most standards): PVC pipe is measured on the nominal inside diameter whereas. 2 ANSI/ASHRAE Addendum b to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 200-2015 The pressure drop in the test measurement apparatus at the test flow, including any pipe between the beam and the measuring devices, shall be calculated and subtracted from the measurement. I will focus on the k-factor approach, but similar tables and formulae can be set up for the equivalent length method. Model Air-Inlet Pipe Dia. Example: Determine L (friction loss in pipe fittings in terms of equivalent length in feet of straight pipe). I can't imagine what this is supposed to fit. 2- K-factor ---> ASHRAE fundamental * The main friction equations are Colbrook White & Hazen Williams. These types of connections are stronger than barbed connections and can handle pressures up to 1, 000 psi. So the “flat oval” in your duct system is mostly straight spiral pipe, elbows and transitions. 2 cup of the fitting Braze the joint. Download ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database for free. 2) For each category, a Statutory Declaration in duplicate shall be submitted. Like the imperial pipe and fittings, the controlled diameter of the PVC pipe during manufacture is still the outside diameter, and so this remains consistent throughout different pressure ratings. ASHRAE Journal|February 2002 25 About the Author S By Steven T. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EQUIVALENT. Its new GRP pipe manufacturing plant is about 5,000 square meters and produces pipes of diameters ranging from 300mm to 2600mm at production rate of about 26 meters per hour of high-quality gravity sewer GRP pipes and pressure lines, qualified and tested to international standards. The program then uses a generic lookup table to determine the amount of equivalent feet of pipe to be added to the length that is already input, based on the flow and size of the pipe leg. The results of the study show that the K-value of long elbows is smallest for larger pipe fittings and increases as the pipe fitting size decreases. These rail fittings will slip-on to schedule 40 pipe to create a connection that is equivalent to a weld. • For basic piping systems • Straight lengths x 50% = length of pipe allowed for fittings • For complex piping systems • Use 75% to 100% b) Fitting Equivalent Method • Detailed procedure requiring complete inventory of fittings • See ASHRAE Equivalent Lengths. kind and size of pipe: "I need a 90-degree sweat-solder elbow for ¾ inch copper," for example. An alternative to the K value method, is the use of equivalent straight pipe lengths (L/D) values for fittings and valves. HVAC Systems & Components Heating Ventilating Air Conditioning HVAC. ), Thermoelectrics Handbook Macro to Nano, CRC Press (2006), pp. The easiest way of defining frictional loss per unit length is by using the Friction Chart (ASHRAE, 1997); however, this chart (shown below) should be used for elevations no higher of 500 m (1,600 ft), air temperature between 5°C and 40°C (40°F and 100°F), and ducts with smooth surfaces. Pipe length is mentioned in either meter or feet. Pipe Sizes and Dimensions Chart; Find the outside diameter of your pipe to the nearest millimetre, use a tape meaasure or vernier gauge. The coefficient for a 4 inch smooth 90° elbow with a 10 inch radius is 0. of the pipes was noticeable. MSC Industrial Supply, Inc. ductile iron flanged fittings When a ductile iron flanged fittings is wanted with a tapped connection, give the size of the tapping required, and designate its location by means of a letter selected from the correct view of the fittings in. The branch run-outs may be insulated flexible ducts or insulated round sheet metal pipes. Equal fric-. NOTE − Maximum lifts are dependent on total length, number of elbows, etc that contribute to. ) Once we have those numbers, we add up all the lengths and equivalent lengths of the longest run to find the total equivalent length. Friction loss data for the fittings is found on the pages of the catalog directly following the friction loss data for the pipe. The formulas for calculating the pressure drop were obtained from the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals (ref 2). Top 10+ Mistakes of DWV plumbing design Listed below are the some of the most frequently missed items, noticed by our inspectors, at plumbing rough-in when non-plumbers attempt plumbing design. (in) 350 psi Equivalent Force 500 psi Equivalent Force Recommended Maximum Pulling Force Absolute Maximum Pulling Force 4 4. A small amount of scale can in fact make a rough pipe smoother as scale would tend to collect in crevices and so reduce the relative roughness of the pipe. He is a former member of ASHRAE Standing Standards Project Committee (SSPC) 90. iron pipe and fittings, see the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute Pipe and Fittings Handbook, available online at www. This application uses slider controls that allow you to quickly increment or decrement the input values and immediately observe the calculated results. Only Paypal payments are accepted. The line size is 6 inches while there is a 8"-6" reducer at the beginning of the line. Reducing the set-point temperature of a storage water heater by 1F will. The ASHRAE Duct tables use resistance factors. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EQUIVALENT. No correction factors. 2(4) through P2904. faSt inStallation Long 20’ (6 m) lengths mean fewer joints. He is a former member of ASHRAE Standing Standards Project Committee (SSPC) 90. 50 176380 260197 1/ 2. 4 the effective pipe length would be: Measured pipe length 4. Add the equivalent lengths, starting at the beginning and proceeding along the mains, risers, branches, and returns (when applicable). The friction loss can be converted to pounds per squared inch (psi), by multiplying the value in feet by 0. EBAA Iron, Inc. com, or contact AB&I at 800-GOT-IRON (468-4766). Pipe sizing hot-water lines is similar in some respects to the calculations used in duct sizing because the pipe sizes are selected on the basis of the quantity and rate of water flow (expressed in gallons per minute, or gpm) and the. This pipe is complied with MS 628, MS 762 and JIS K 6741 (JIS Standard), which intended to be used for pressure application in cold water services. Reducing the set-point temperature of a storage water heater by 1F will. 2 feet —call it. DUCT DESIGN METHODS Duct design methods for HVAC systems and for exhaust systems conveying vapors, gases, and smoke are the equal friction method, the static regain method, and the T-method. The limiting factor on cooling units is oil sump capacity in the compressor. Creating New Resistance Tables. Here's an example calculation using the compressed air pipe sizing table (table 1) and the equivalent pipe length table (table 2). This handbook is a quick reference aid.